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animal cell Structure - Celula Animals


Animal Cell

The animal cell (celula animals) consists of many organelles that are need in order for the cell to function ranging from the nucleus, plasma membrane, to lysosomes.

Nucleus


The most prominent organelle in an animal cell is normally the nucleus. The nucleus contains most of the genes that control the cell. The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus, separating the contents from the cytoplasm. This envelope is a double membrane, made up of a lipid bilayer with associated proteins. The nuclear side of the envelope is lined by the nuclear lamina, which is a netlike array of protein filaments that keep the shape of the nucleus. Also within is the chromatin, a material that organizes DNA and proteins. When the cells beginnings to reproduce, the chromatin condenses becoming thick separate structures know as chromosomes.

Ribosomes


Ribosomes consist of two sub units and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. Free ribosomes function in the cytosol, while bound ribosomes generally make proteins that are for inclusion into the membrane, packaging, or for export from the cell.

Endoplasmic Reticulum


Endoplasmic reticulum makes up more then half the membrane of the cell. There are two different kinds of endoplasmic reticulum: smooth and rough. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum appears to be smooth because it lacks ribosomes on the cytoplasmic surface. Yet the other endoplasmic reticulum appears rough because ribosomes stud the cytoplasmic surface. After leaving the endoplasmic reticulum, many transport vesicles travel to the Golgi apparatus. This apparatus consists of flattened membranous sacs. This is the center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting and shipping. Here the products of the endoplasmic reticulum are modified and sorted then sent to their destination.

Lysosomes


Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes that the cell uses to digest macromolecules. Hydrolytic enzymes and lysosomal membrane are made by rough endoplasmic reticulum and then transferred to a Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes function in intracellular digestion in a variety of circumstance.

Peroxisome


Peroxisome is a specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane. They contain enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen. Unlike lysosomes, peroxisome are not budded from the endomembrane system. They grow by incorporating proteins and lipids produce in the cytosol.

Mitochondria


Mitochondria are the organelles that convert energy to forms that cells can use for work. These are the sites are for cellular respiration, the catabolic process that generates ATP. The number of mitochondria is based upon the cells level of metabolic activity.

Microtubules and Microfilaments


Nonmembrane organelles within the cells include microtubules and microfilaments. They form a framework called the cytoskeleton, which reinforces the cells shape and functions in cell movement. The cytoskeleton is constructed from at least three types of fiber microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.

Cilia and Flagella


A special arrangement of microtubules is responsible for the eating of the flagella and cilia. Cilia normally occurs in large number on the cell surface. Flagella are the same length in diameter but longer. These are responsible for locomotive appendages that protrude from some cells. Many unicellular organisms are propelled through water by cilia and flagella.

The outer shell of each is cell is made up of a plasma membrane. The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cells chemical composition.

Every cell uses all components, no one piece can make the cell function alone. Most organelles are interwoven and work based on the work performed by other units in the cell.




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